There are generally two types of diabetes, Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 diabetes can be caused if insulin cannot be produced in the body, but type 2 diabetes (Type2DM) appears in case of insulin inefficiency . The type of diabetes that is the subject of metabolic surgery is Type 2DM, in which insulin is not effective even though it is present.
Although type 1 diabetes can be seen at any age, it occurs more often at children or at an early age. Insulin-producing cells in the pancreas are damaged and unable to produce insulin in such a case. A disorder in the immune system is also considered to be involved. These patients cannot survive unless they use insulin.
The occurrence of type 2 diabetes may be associated with genetic factors, malnutrition and obesity. In such a case,there is a disorder in the secretion of insulin or insensitivity or resistance of the tissues to insulin. It occurs mostly in middle ages. 90% of all diabetics have Type 2 diabetes (Type 2DM).
Type 2 diabetes is more common for overweight and obese people. This is caused by some hormones secreted from fat cells. These hormones cause tissues to need more insulin in order to consume sugar, that implicates to insulin resistance. In fact, in such case, the pancreas produces more insulin.
High amounts of insulin stimulate the hunger center, leading to eating more food and gaining weight. This leads to a vicious cycle, creating higher insulin resistance. For these reasons, it is very difficult for patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes to be on a diet, they struggle with weight and sugar level management.
After certain stage, insulin sensitivity increaser (antidiabetic) drugs should be given or extra insulin supplementation should be provided. Generally, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases Clinic Department is in charge of standardised diagnosis and treatment of diabetes .
In the treatment of T2DM, first of all a physically active lifestyle and nutrition regulation are advised. Second step would be medication treatment such as taking pills in purpose of increasing insulin secretion and increasing the sensitivity of tissues to insulin. In the phase of complications appearance in which the insulin level decreases thoroughly or there is a loss of renal function, insulin intaking might be inevitable treatment.
In the last decade, certain reliable scientific proofs have been obtained from cases when some gastrointestinal surgeries have managed to take under control high blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetic patients with obesity that couldn`t be controlled by standard treatments.
The T2DM diabetic patients in approval with Endocrinology and Metabolism Diseases experts, undergo the metabolic surgery treatment after which they get smiling faces satisfactory results.
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